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Genus CALLOLOPHUS, Salvadori, 1874
This genus was proposed for 3 species: C. puniceus, which belongs to Gecinus, C. mentalis (Chrysophlegma humii), and C. malaccensis, no type being named. The last-named species has been placed in Chrysophlegma by Hargitt, but it and its near ally C. miniatus, which is confined to Java, exhibit a widely different coloration from that characteristic of Chrysophlegma, the plumage being barred both above and below. This is, I think, especially amongst Woodpeckers, a more important generic distinction than slight differences in the form of the bill. Callolophus has a long and broad occipital crest, and the bill is shorter, more curved, and broader at the base than that of Chrysophlegma.
Coloration: Upper mandible black, lower bluish white; irides red; eyelids grey; legs and feet pale dingy green (Davison).Male. Nasal plumes brown; forehead, lores, crown, occiput, and upper part of long occipital crest dull crimson. Lower and longer feathers of the crest pale yellow; on the sides of the head the feathers are brown, tipped with crimson, sometimes with terminal whitish spots. Hind neck and back dull olive-green with wavy buff or yellow cross-bars; the feathers of the lower back and rump edged with pale yellow. Upper tail-coverts brown with a few buff spots; sides of neck and of back more or less tinged with crimson. Scapulars and whole outer surface of wing dull crimson like the heed; quills dark brown, the inner webs of all with pale rufous bars, outer webs of primaries with rufous spots. Chin, throat, and sides of neck light rufous brown, sometimes speckled with buff and dusky, and passing on the breast into the colour of the remaining underparts, which are marked with alternate undulating bars of dark brown and rufous white. In the female there is no crimson on the forehead or on the sides of the head in front of the ear-coverts, these with the chin and throat are dark brown and speckled, each feather tipped dusky with a terminal white spot. Young birds are dull pale brown beneath with ill-marked dark bars.
Size: Length 10; tail 2.6; wing 5; tarsus 0.9; bill from gape 1.2
Distribution: Malay peninsula, Sumatra, & Borneo, extending into southern Tenasserim as far north as Tavoy.
Habits: According to Davison this Woodpecker is found in evergreen forests and mangrove swamps. It is never seen on the ground, and is generally solitary.
Key to the Species
Coloration: Bill bluish white, darker blue at the base; irides red; legs pale dusky green.Male. Forehead, lores, cheeks, and chin light brown; crown pink, the feathers edged with deeper red; occiput and nape with the ear-coverts dull olivaceous yellow; upper parts from neck dull red, tail-feathers edged with the same; primary-coverts dull yellow; quills and tail-feathers brown, barred or spotted on both webs with rufous white; lower parts dark olive, paler and yellower on throat and light brown on the chin; under wing coverts and axillaries dusky brown with rufous spots. In the female the red of the crown is wanting, and the whole head is dull yellow.
Size: Length 10; tail 3.7; wing 5; tarsus 0.95; bill from gape 1.1
Distribution: Common in the Eastern Himalayas, chiefly between 2000 and 5000 feet as far west as Nepal; found also in Assam, the hill-ranges to the south, Cachar and Manipur. A specimen is also recorded from Laos (Siam).
Habits: According to Jerdon this Woodpecker has a squeaking note. Hume met with it in Manipur in pairs.
Coloration: Bill pale bluish white, strongly tinges with blue at base. Irides brown. Legs, feet and claws pale dirty green (Davison). Male. Forehead, lores, and sides of head yellowish brown. Sides of neck more yellow, this colour extending round the neck behind the occipital crest, which, with the crown, is bright crimson. Back, scapulars, wing-coverts, and outer margins of wing- feathers, except of primaries towards their tips, yellowish olive, the rump-feathers the same, but narrowly edged and tipped with scarlet or orange. Quills brown, with white spots on the inner webs, and sometimes indistinct pale spots on the outer. Tail-feathers brown, the outer webs bordered with olive-yellow near the base, the inner webs of all but the middle pair spotted with white. Lower parts dark olive-green to greenish brown; throat more yellow. Female. No red on head, which is yellowish brown throughout, much yellower on the nape, so as to have a broad yellow collar.
Size: Length 10.5; tail 3.5; wing 5.2; tarsus 1.0; bill from gape 1.2
Distribution: Common in the Pegu hills between Thayet Myo and Toungngoo, also throughout Tenasserim. The most southern locality recorded is Kussoom, a little north of Junk Ceylon.
Habits: This Woodpecker inhabits both deciduous and evergreen forest,
but is chiefly found on and amongst bamboos. According to Davison it occurs
singly or in pairs. never in parties.
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