Fauna of India (Birds)  vol iii 1895 - by W. T. Blanford

Page 10

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Gecinus occipitalisBlack-naped Green Woodpecker

Picas occipitalis, Vigors, P.Z.S. 1830, p.8; Blyth J.A.S.B. x, p.922; xii, p.1002; xiv, p.191
Picas barbatus, Gray in Hardw. Ill. ind. Zool. i, pl. xxxi, fig. 2 (1830-32)
Gecinus occipitalis, Blyth, Cat. p.58; Horsf.& M.Cat ii, p.661; Jerdon B.I.i, p.287; Godw.-Aust, J.A.S.B. xxxix, p.267; xlv, p.70; Cock & Marsh. S.F.i, p.350; Hume, S.F.iii, p.70; v, p.26; xi, p.62; id. Cat.no.172; Blyth & Wald. Birds Burma. p.76; Hume & Dav. S.F.vi, p.137; Oates, S.F.viii, p.165; Scully, ibid, p.248; Binqham, S.F.ix, p.164; Oates, B.B.ii, p.51; Marshall, Ibis, 1884, p.410; Salvadori, Ann. Miss. Civ, Gen. (2) iv, p.579; v, p.566; Hargitt Ibis, 1888, p.6; id. Cat. B.M. xviii, p.50; Oates in Hume’s N & E 2nd ed. ii, p.299; Sharpe, Yarkand Miss., Aves, p.109
Mong-chok, Lepcha

Coloration:  Male. Forehead and crown crimson. Plumes over nostrils, upper lores, a line above the grey supercilium, occiput and short occipital crest, and a broad malar stripe from the lower mandible black. The occiput and malar stripe more or less mixed with grey; sides of head, including lower lores, supercilia, area below eye, and ear-coverts, ashy grey. Sides of neck, hind neck, and back moderately bright green, generally tinged with bright yellow on the rump and occasionally with orange, but sometimes only brighter green. Secondary wing-coverts, tertiaries, and outer webs of secondaries yellowish olive. Quills dark brown, the inner webs, except near the tips, with imperfect white bars, the outer webs of the primaries with equidistant white spots, primary-coverts barred. Tail-feathers black, with greenish edges near the base, the median pair with imperfect greenish-drab bars. Breast green, duller and more olivaceous than the back, passing into greyish white on the throat and chin, and into ashy grey or sometimes brownish grey on the abdomen. Lower wing-coverts banded white and brown. Female. Whole forehead, crown, and nape black, the sides of the feathers grey, producing a striped appearance.

The young is duller in colour and the lower plumage and tail-feathers are barred. Bill dull blackish brown; eyelids purplish brown; iris dull red. Legs dull green; claws greenish horn-colour (Oates).

Size:  Length 12.5;  tail 4.7 (3.8 to 5.1)  wing 5.6;  tarsus 1.2;  bill from gape 1.7

Distribution: From Murree and Kashmir throughout the Himalayas to Assam and Yunnan at moderate elevations, up to about 8000 feet to the westward and 5000 in Sikkim; also the countries between Assam and Burma, throughout Burma and in Siam.

Habits: Breeds in the Himalayas from the middle of May to the middle of June, laying four, five, or sometimes six white eggs, moderately glossy or very polished, in a hole, usually bored in the stem of a tree, but much nearer the ground than in the case of G. squamatus. The average size of the eggs is 1.14 by 0.88.

Gecinus chlorolophusSmall Himalayan Yellow-naped Woodpecker

Picas chlorolophus, Vieill. Nouv. Dict. d'Hist. Nat. xxvi, p.78 (1818)
Picas nepaulensis, Gray in Hardw. Ill. ind Zool. i, pl. xxxi, fig.1 (1830-32)
Gecinus chloropus, Blyth, Cat. p.58; Tytler, A.M.N.H. (2) xiii, p.367 (1854)
Chrysophlegma chlorolophus, Horsf.& M.Cat. p.662; Jerdon, B.I.i, p.289; Godw.-Aust. J.A.S.B. xxxix; pt.2, p.97; xlv, pt.2, p.70 Hume, S.F.iii, p.71; v, p.26; xi, p.62; id. Cat.no.174; Blyth & Wald. Birds Burma p.76; Hume & Dav. S.F.vi, p.138; Ball, S.F.vii, p.206; Scully, S.F.viii, p.249; Bingham, S.F.ix, p.164; Oates, B.B.ii, p.45; C.H.T. Marshall, Ibis, 1884, p.410; Salvadori, Ann. Mus. Civ. Gen. 2, iv, p.578; v, p.565; vii, p.379
Gecinus chlorolophus, Hargitt, Ibis, 1888, p.184; id. Cat. B.M. xviii, p.59; Oates in Hume’s N. & E ii, p.300
Lesser Yellow-naped Woodpecker, (Jerdon)

Coloration: Bill yellowish-green horny, culmen and tip dark plumbeous; irides carmine-red; orbital skin bluish plumbeous; tarsi dingy green; claws pale horny (Scully).Male. Nasal plumes and a line above lores black. Forehead, a stripe from the forehead on each side of the crown to the nape, and the tips of the feathers for a malar stripe on each side of the lower mandible crimson. Crown of head olive-green, some of the occipital feathers occasionally tipped crimson. Nuchal crest of loose-textured feathers ending in filaments golden to orange-yellow; back, wing-coverts, rump, and upper tail-coverts bright yellowish green. Lores and a band beneath the eye and ear-coverts, also a narrow line over the eye, whitish. Ear-coverts pale olive; quills dark brown, the inner webs, except near the tips, with squarish white spots. Outer webs of primaries near their base, and outer webs of secondaries throughout red bordered with green; a few small white spots (sometimes wanting) on outer webs of primaries. Tail black, the median feathers with bronzy-green edges near the base; lower parts olive. Chin, throat, abdomen, under wing-coverts, and lower tail-coverts barred with white or greenish white.

Female. No crimson on the forehead, sides of head above the eye, nor on malar stripe, but there is a band on each side of the occiput; otherwise the plumage resembles that of the male.

The young are duller, the lower parts dusky, not green, and barred or spotted throughout.

Size:  Length 10.5;  tail 4;  wing 5.4;  tarsus 0.9;  bill from gape 1.25.

Distribution: The lower Himalayas up to about 10,000 feet, as far west as Chamba, also Assam, Cachar, Tipperah, Manipur, Arrakan, Burma generally, and Tenasserim. A specimen referred to this species has been obtained from Perak. This Woodpecker has been reported from Orissa, but its occurrence in the Indian peninsula must be regarded as doubtful.

Habits: Like other members of the genus, this green Woodpecker sometimes feeds on the ground. In Burma it is found both in thick forests and open tree-jungle. The nest has been taken in Sikkim in April, and contained three eggs, one measuring 1.14 by 0.72. The nest-hole was 14 feet from the ground in the stem of a dry tree, the eggs white and glossy.

Gecinus puniceus,   Crimson-winged Green Woodpecker

Picus puniceus, Horsf. Trans. Linn. Soc. xiii, p.170 (1821)
Gecinus puniceus, Blyth, Cat. p.59; Hargitt, Ibis, 1888, p.176; id. Cat. B.M. xviii, p.64
Venilia punicea, Horsf.& M.Cat. ii, p.664
Chrysophlegma puniceus, Blyth Birds Burm. p.77; Hume, S.F.iii, p.324; Oates, B.B. ii, p.44
Callolophus puniceus, Hume & Dav. S.F. vi, p.139; Hume, Cat. no.175 ter

Coloration: Male. Nasal plumes and a line over the lores brownish black. Forehead, crown, nape, and broad malar stripe crimson, this colour descending for some distance behind the ear coverts. Nuchal crest of loose-textured feathers yellow; back and scapulars green, more or less olivaceous; lower back and rump the same, the feathers edged with pale yellow; wing-coverts, whole outer webs of secondaries, and basal portion of outer webs of primaries deep crimson. Tips of secondaries and tertiaries green; remainder of quills dark brown, outer webs of primaries sometimes with a few white spots; inner webs of all with larger white spots or imperfect bars. Tail black; sides of head dull olive; chin and throat light brown or brownish olive. Sides of neck and lower parts olive-green; the flanks spotted with white.

Female has no malar band, but otherwise precisely resembles the male. Young birds are duller in colour and have the lower parts browner and spotted more or less throughout.

Upper mandible black; lower mandible and edges of upper at gape dark greenish yellow. Iris crimson; orbital skin lavender-blue. Legs and feet pale green (Davison).

Size:  Length 10.5;  tail 3.75;  wing 5.15;  tarsus 0.9;  bill from gape 1.4.

Distribution: The Malay peninsula, extending into southern Tenasserim as far north as Tavoy; and to the southward to Sumatra, Java, and Borneo.

Habits: According to Davison this Woodpecker inhabits evergreen forests. It is very noisy in the evening and has a peculiar note, which it utters from the top of a high tree. It is usually seen singly and has not been observed on the ground.

Gecinus nigrigenisRed-rumped Green Woodpecker

Gecinus erythropygius, apud Wardl. Ramsay, P.Z.S. 1874, p.212, pl. xxxv; Walden, Ibis, 1875, pp.148,463; id. in Blyth's Birds Burm. p.76; Oates, S.F.x, p.191; id, B.B.ii, p.52; Hargitt, Ibis, 1888, p.189, nec Elliot
Gecinus nigrigenis, Hume, J.A.S.B. 1574, p.106; id. S.F.i pp.444,471; id. Cat.no.171 ter; Hume & Dav. S.F.vi, p.136 Bingham, S.F.ix, p.163; Hargitt, Cat. B.M. xviii, p.67; Oates in Hume’s N. & E. 2nd ed. ii. p.300

Coloration: Male. Cap including the sides of the head and nuchal crest black, except an area of variable size on the crown, which is crimson; back, scapulars, wing-coverts, and upper tail coverts yellowish green; rump bright scarlet, sometimes mixed with yellow (the latter may show immaturity); quills dark brown, the inner webs with white bands, outer webs of primaries with white spots, outer webs of secondaries through out and of primaries near the base yellowish green; tail black, the median feathers with green edges towards the base; chin, throat, sides of neck, and upper breast yellow, shading o on the lower breast into the colour of the abdomen, which is whitish with scale-like brown markings formed by intramarginal bands and shaft-lines to the feathers, these markings being broader on the lower tail-coverts. Female lacks the red of the crown, but otherwise resembles the male. In some specimens of both sexes there is a white or yellow line behind the eye.

Bill dark horny; iris sulphur-yellow; legs and feet dark green; claws horny (Bingham). The basal portion of the lower mandible is yellow to a variable extent.

Size:  Length 12.75;  tail 5;  wing 6.3;  tarsus 1.2;  bill from gape 1.6.

Distribution: From Karennee and Toungngoo in the north to southern Tenasserim. A specimen has also been received at the British Museum from Siam. The true G. erythropygius from Cochin, China and Laos, has a white bill.

Habits: This beautiful green Woodpecker keeps to the drier and more thinly wooded Tenasserim hills, and is chiefly found in eng- (Dipterocarpus) and bamboo-jungle. According to Bingham its note is peculiar and consists of 12 to 15 whistled notes, the first high and shrill, the others descending in the scale. The nest, containing two glossy white eggs measuring 1.18 by 0.93, was found by the same observer in a pynkado-tree (Xylia) on March 18th.

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